MolProbity logo


Please cite one (or more) of the appropriate papers when referring to MolProbity in print or during a presentation:

Vincent B. Chen, W. Bryan Arendall III, Jeffrey J. Headd, Daniel A. Keedy, Robert M. Immormino, Gary J. Kapral, Laura W. Murray, Jane S. Richardson and David C. Richardson (2010) MolProbity: all-atom structure validation for macromolecular crystallography. Acta Crystallographica D66: 12-21.

Ian W. Davis, Andrew Leaver-Fay, Vincent B. Chen, Jeremy N. Block, Gary J. Kapral, Xueyi Wang, Laura W. Murray, W. Bryan Arendall III, Jack Snoeyink, Jane S. Richardson and David C. Richardson (2007) MolProbity: all-atom contacts and structure validation for proteins and nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids Research 35: Web Server issue, W375-W383.

The following paper is also relevant when using MolProbity with nucleic acids:

Ian W. Davis, Laura W. Murray, Jane S. Richardson, David C. Richardson (2004) MolProbity: structure validation and all-atom contact analysis for nucleic acids and their complexes. Nucleic Acids Research. 32: W615-W619.

For citing KiNG, please use the following reference.

Vincent B. Chen, Ian W. Davis, David C. Richardson (2009) KiNG (Kinemage, Next Generation): A versatile interactive molecular and scientific visualization program. Protein Science. 18: 2403-2409.


  • NIH Grant GM-15000, funding Richardson Lab research for over 34 years
  • NIH Grant GM-61302, funding RLab for over 3 years
  • A HHMI Predoctoral Fellowship to IWD


David C. Richardson and Jane S. Richardson
Department of Biochemistry, Duke University


  • Ian W. Davis - MolProbity, Ramachandran and rotamer analyses, KiNG
  • Vincent B. Chen - MolProbity, KiNG, Jiffiloop
  • Jeffrey J. Headd - MolProbity, Reduce, Probe, Remediator
  • Robert M. Immormino - MolProbity, Remediator, Reduce, Probe
  • W. Bryan Arendall - Flipkin, MolProbity
  • J. Michael Word - Reduce, Probe, Flipkin, Clashlistcluster, Dang, Scrublines
  • David C. Richardson - Prekin, JavaMage, Mage
The original MolProbity was coded by Ian W. Davis in the fall of 2001, as a rotation project in the Richardson laboratory. MolProbity is currently being maintained and updated by Vincent B. Chen, W. Bryan Arendall, and David C. Richardson.

MolProbity makes particularly heavy use of the programs Reduce and Probe, authored by J. Michael Word. For details, see these references:
  • Word, et. al. (1999) J. Mol. Biol. 285, 1711-1733
  • Word, et. al. (1999) J. Mol. Biol. 285, 1735-1747
MolProbity also uses standard values for bond and angle geometries, obtained from the following references:
  • Parkinson, et. al. New parameters for the refinement of nucleic acid-containing structures. (1996) Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 52, 57-64.
  • Engh, RA and Huber, R. Structure quality and target parameters. (2001) International Tables for Crystallography Vol F, Chapter 18.3, 382-392.